Madagascar has a coastline of about 5,600 km, and one of the largest Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) in the Indian Ocean with a surface area of 1.14 million km². Industrial tuna fishing is carried out by longliners of less than 24 metres, and in 2018 five longline vessels operated in the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission Area of Competence. They caught an average annual catch of 355 t, made up of 49% tuna, 19% swordfish, 12% sharks and 19% other species. The tuna catch was mainly made
up of bigeye tuna, albacore tuna and yellowfin tuna. Furthermore, there were landings of pelagic fish from small and artisanal fisheries in 2018. The fishing gear used is mainly gillnet, line and longline. The total annual catch for the small and artisanal sector was estimated at 5,000 t in 2018, of which tuna and tuna-like species constituted 30% of the catch.

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